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Knitting

Knitting is a process in which yarn is moulded to generate a textile or a fabric for use in many types of garments.

Knitting generates multiple loops of yarn, called stitches, in a line or tube. Knitting consists of multiple active stitches on the needle at a time. Knitted fabric contains a number of consecutive rows of interlocking loops. As each row proceeds, a newly created loop is pulled through one or more loops from the prior row, placed on the gaining needle, and the loops from the prior row are then pulled off the other needle. Knitting can be done by hand or by using a machine.

Knitting can be categorized into two types, namely Circular knitting versus flat knitting. Circular knit is used in knitting body fabrics. Flat knit is used in knitting collars & cuffs. T shirts & Polo shirts are referred as knitted garments. Whereas the body, sleeves, collars, cuffs are cut separately and joined together, so these are referred as “Cut & Sewn Garments”.

Dyeing

Dyeing is transferring color to a fulfilled textile products like fibres, yarns and fabrics to sustain permanent and long lasting color. Dyes comes as powders, crystals, pastes or liquid dispersions which dissolve completely in an aqueous solution like water.

Usually Dyeing is achieved with a unique solution containing dyes and a particular chemical material. Then dye molecules have uncut chemical bond with fibre molecules. The temperature and time controlling are the two vital factors in Dyeing process. Two main categories of Dyes are, natural and artificial that is man-made. The dye being extracted from animals, plants & minerals are known as natural dyes. Artificial dyes are also known as Synthetic dyes, made in a laboratory are those chemicals often extracted from coal tar or petroleum based texture.

Printing

Textile Printing is the process of employing colour to fabric in well defined patterns or designs. In desired printed fabrics the colour is bonded with the fibre, so as to endure washing and friction. Textile printing is relevant to Dyeing whereas dyeing covers the whole fabric uniformly with one colour but printing implements one or more colours are applied to the fabric in certain parts only with sharply defined patterns.

In Printing, wooden blocks, stencils, engraved plates, rollers, or silk screens can be used to apply colours on the fabric. Colourants used in Printing process consists of dyes condensed to block the colour from being spread by capillary attraction beyond the limits of the well defined patterns or designs.

Finishing

In Textile Industry manufacturing, Finishing is referred to “the processes that convert the woven or knitted material into a usable one”. And more significantly, process being done after Dyeing the yarn or fabric to enhance the Appearance, Performance or feel of the finished Textile or Clothing.

Some Finishing techniques such as Bleaching and Dyeing are implemented to yarn before it is woven, while others are implemented to the grey cloth directly after it is being woven or knitted. Some finishing techniques, such as Fulling is acquired with Hand-weaving for times. Likewise Mercerisation is by-products of the Industrial Rebellion.

Finishing process is acquired by the following techniques:

  • Calendaring
  • Decatising
  • Desizing
  • Pressing or Ironing
  • Scouring
  • Shrinking
  • Shearing or Singeing
    • Bleaching
    • Dyeing
    • Printing
    • Watering
  • Fulling or Waulking
  • Hydrophobic
  • Weighting